Despite being only 27, Moses said he made the decision in order to focus on club football and his family while reflecting on an international career in which he helped Nigeria to the Africa Cup of Nations title in 2013.
After playing youth football for England, Moses made his Nigeria debut in 2012 and played in two World Cups, amassing 37 caps and scoring 12 goals for the Super Eagles.
In a statement on Twitter he said: "I would like to announce that after much thought I have made the decision to retire from playing international football.
"I have experienced some of the best moments of my life wearing the Super Eagles shirt and have memories with me that will last a lifetime.
"Nothing will ever compete to what it felt like to represent Nigeria on behalf of our country.
"However I feel that now is the right time to step away in order to be able to focus fully on club career and my young family as well as to allow the next generation of Super Eagle stars the opportunity to step up and to flourish. We are blessed as a nation to have so many exciting young players coming through and now is their time."
Moses scored the last of Nigeria's goals at the 2018 World Cup in Russia, converting a penalty in a 2-1 defeat to Argentina that led to his side's elimination from the competition in the group stages.
He wished Nigeria coach Gernot Rohr and his former team-mates well for the future, saying: "I have already spoken to the manager by telephone and would like to say thank you to him and his staff, the NFF and all of my team-mates for all of their support over the years.
"Most importantly I would like to say thank you to the Nigerian people for believing in me and supporting me over the years. It's meant the world to me and my family and I will always be a proud Nigerian supporting the team.
"There are so many highlights that stand out for me over the years; from making my debut, to playing in two World Cups and being a part of the team to win the African Nations Cup for the first time for our nation since 1994 just being a few of them.