The FA has retrospectively punished Mitrovic for an incident that happened just two minutes into Leeds' 3-0 Championship win over Fulham at Elland Road on Saturday.
Referee Tony Harrington did not see the incident at the time but Mitrovic admitted the act constituted violent conduct and he has therefore been banned.
Fulham, fifth in the table, are 10 points behind leader Leeds and seven adrift of second-placed West Brom with seven games to go.
Mitrovic is the Championship's joint top scorer having netted 23 of his team's 52 goals in 2019-20.
The 25-year-old will miss matches against QPR, Birmingham City and Nottingham Forest.