Gabriel Jesus starred for Tite's men, scoring the opener before setting up Roberto Firmino's sealer in the semi-final at the Estadio Mineirao.
Led by Lionel Messi, Argentina had its chances, hitting the woodwork twice through the star forward and Sergio Aguero.
But those chances were dashed by Firmino's 71st-minute goal as eight-time champions Brazil reached the decider.
In what was a frantic start, Leandro Paredes went close for Argentina, his powerful effort from range going just over.
Jesus had looked bright early and he opened the scoring for Brazil in the 19th minute.
Dani Alves did brilliantly to release Firmino down the right side of the area, the forward crossing for Jesus to convert from close range.
As Brazil appeared content to sit back after its opener, Argentina went close to an equaliser on the half-hour mark.
Messi's well-weighted set-piece from a central area was met by Aguero, whose header bounced back off the crossbar.
Philippe Coutinho had a great chance to double Brazil's lead in the 56th minute, the attacker blazing over after being set up following a wonderful turn by Jesus.
Just a minute later, Argentina hit the woodwork again, Messi's volley from the left side of the area bouncing off the post after a blocked Lautaro Martinez shot fell to the star.
Argentina continued to dominate as they looked for an equaliser, Messi's 20-yard free-kick comfortably saved by Alisson in the 66th minute.
Instead, Brazil struck on the counter-attack to double their lead thanks to some excellent work from Jesus.
Jesus led a break with a brilliant run from inside his own half before composing himself to square for Firmino to tap in and make it 2-0.
That was the decisive blow as Brazil, which had already sat back after its opener, held firm to progress to the final.