The Norway star was left out of the squad for its Champions League clash with Lazio at Signal Iduna Park.
Dortmund tweeted to confirm the 20 year-old has a muscle problem, which he reportedly sustained in training.
The news is a blow for Lucien Favre's side, which will secure qualification for the last 16 by avoiding defeat to lazio.
Haaland has scored 16 goals in the competition at a rate of one every 56 minutes, which is the best average of any player with at least 10 goals in the competition. He is just three short of Ole Gunnar Solskjaer's record of 19 for a Norwegian player.
Haaland also has 10 goals in eight Bundesliga appearances in 2020-2021 for a Dortmund side who sit four points behind leader Bayern Munich after nine games.
Dortmund faces Eintracht Frankfurt before its final Champions League group game against Zenit.