The former Vancouver Whitecaps boss has signed a deal until the end of the 2022-23 A-League season and replaces Ernie Merrick, who was sacked last month, as the Jets' permanent coach.
Robinson made 52 appearances for Wales during his playing career, in which he also featured for the likes of Sunderland, Wolves and Norwich City.
The 43-year-old's first senior coaching job was with the Whitecaps, where he was at the helm for almost five years ending in September 2018.
"I am thrilled to be taking charge of the Jets. Everything I have seen about the club so far has been top class, they are desperate for success and hopefully we can achieve that together," Robinson said in a statement on Thursday.
"After first speaking to Lawrie [McKinna, Jets chief executive], I was genuinely excited about Newcastle. I spoke to several other people in and around the league and former team-mates of mine who have played and coached in Australia, and everyone was unbelievably positive about the club and the Hyundai A-League in general.
"The opportunity was too good to turn down. I am really looking forward to finalising my coaching staff, rolling our sleeves up and getting to work.
"I am moving my family from a beautiful city in Vancouver to another amazing part of the world. The city of Newcastle is a city on the up, and myself and my family are looking forward to joining the community and playing a huge part in the continued growth of football in this area."
McKinna said Robinson was a good fit for the Jets, who are struggling on the bottom of the A-League table with just 10 points from 15 games.
"Carl's name was one of the first ones that came up when we were considering who we would want as the new head coach, we felt he was the outstanding candidate from the start among hundreds of CVs that we received," he said.
"He's an experienced coach with a good understanding of the Hyundai A-League, and he knows how to work within a salary cap due to his MLS experience which is crucial for us.
"We've spoken at length about just about everything to do with the club, he came out to tour our facilities and the city to make sure it was the right fit for him which says a lot to us about the character of the man – that is very important to us."
Robinson will officially take over on Monday, a day after the Jets face the Central Coast Mariners in the F3 Derby.