Dybala, De Gea headline Ballon d'Or snubbed stars
They are joined by Mbappe's France team-mates Hugo Lloris, Paul Pogba and Raphael Varane, as well as Croatia star Luka Modric, who won the FIFA World Cup Golden Ball.
Modric's international team-mates Mario Mandzukic and Ivan Rakitic are also on the shortlist, as are Liverpool duo Mohamed Salah and Sadio Mane.
Completing the final 15 nominees for France Football's prize are Real Madrid's Marcelo and Sergio Ramos, Atletico Madrid goalkeeper Jan Oblak and Barcelona forward Luis Suarez.
Mbappe scored 21 goals for Paris Saint-Germain last season before starring in France's triumphant Russia 2018 campaign, netting three times on their way to the final and then again in the 4-2 win over Croatia that sealed their second World Cup triumph.
The teenager is also on the 10-player shortlist for the inaugural Kopa Trophy, a new prize for the best player under 21, which is judged by stars including Cristiano Ronaldo and Messi.
Messi and Neymar did not enjoy World Cups as memorable as Mbappe's, but they were instrumental in Barcelona and PSG's respective title wins.
Other players vying for the 2018 Ballon d'Or include last year's winner Cristiano Ronaldo, Gareth Bale, Harry Kane, Eden Hazard and Antoine Griezmann.
Full 30-man shortlist:
Gareth Bale - Real Madrid
Sergio Aguero - Manchester City
Allison Becker - Liverpool
Edinson Cavani - Paris Saint-Germain
Thibaut Courtois - Real Madrid
Cristiano Ronaldo - Juventus
Kevin De Bruyne - Manchester City
Diego Godin - Atletico Madrid
Roberto Firmino - Liverpool
Antoine Griezmann - Atletico Madrid
Eden Hazard - Chelsea
Isco - Real Madrid
Harry Kane - Tottenham
N'Golo Kante - Chelsea
Hugo Lloris - Tottenham
Mario Mandzukic - Juventus
Sadio Mane - Liveprool
Marcelo - Real Madrid
Kylian Mbappe - Paris Saint-Germain
Lionel Messi - Barcelona
Luka Modric - Real Madrid
Neymar - Paris Saint-Germain
Jan Oblak - Atletico Madrid
Paul Pogba - Manchester United
Ivan Rakitic - Barcelona
Sergio Ramos - Real Madrid
Mohamed Salah - Liverpool
Luis Suarez - Barcelona
Raphael Varane - Real Madrid