Competing for the first time together Ren Qian and Si Yajie took gold for China which has now won this event at all nine world meets since Ukraine won in 1988.
"We were very nervous at the beginning, so we are very happy with the result, we want to win many more medals for China in the future," said Ren.
Behind the Chinese duo on 352.56 points, Kim Mi-Rae and Kim Kuk-Hyang won North Korea's first ever silver medal at a world meet with 336.48.
The Malaysians Pandelela Pamg and Jun Hoong Cheong took bronze (328.74).
The gold was Ren's second in Budapest after her win on Saturday in the mixed 10 metre synchronised platform event with compatriot Lian Junjie.
Si Yajie's gold was her third in platform diving, at three different world championships.